Reported speech (direct or indirect reported speech)

 

Use reported speech to report what another person said.

از این گرامر برای نقل قول استفاده می کنیم. یعنی وقتی می خواهیم به یک نفر حرف یک نفر دیگر را بگوییم.

 

We often use “said” or “told” to report what another person said.

We can use “that” after “said” or “told”.

The tense of the verb changes as follow.

می توان گفت که تقریبا زمان فعل در نقل قول مستقیم، یک زمان به عقب باز می گردد.

How does the verb changes in reported speeches?

Direct speech Reported speech

Simple present

Simple past

“I like pizza.”

He said that he liked pizza.

“I love you.”

He told me that he loved me.

“I am happy.”

He said he was happy.

توضیحات: اگر فعل اصلی در جمله حال ساده باشد باید در نقل قول آن را به گذشته ی ساده تبدیل کنیم.

 

Present continuous Past continuous

“I am washing my car.”

He said he was washing his car.

“We are playing cards.”

They said they were playing cards.

توضیحات: اگر فعل در جمله ی نقل قول مستقیم حال استمراری باشد باید آن را در نقل قول غیر مستقیم به حالت گذشته ی استمراری تبدیل کنیم.

 

Past simple Past perfect

“I was in India.”

He said he had been in India.

“I went to school yesterday.”

He told me that he had gone to school that day

توضیحات: اگر فعل در جمله ی نقل قول مستقیم گذشته ی ساده باشد باید به گذشته ی کامل تبدیل شود.

 

Present perfect Past perfect

“I have been a teacher since 1389.”

He said he had been a teacher since 1389.

“We have studied English for a long time. “

He said they had studied English for a long time.

 

توضیحات: اگر فعل در جمله ی نقل قول مستقیم حال کامل باشد باید به گذشته ی کامل تبدیل شود. فعل گذشته ی ساده و حال کامل به یک فعل تبدیل می شود.

 

Past continuous Past perfect continuous

“I was driving fast.”

He said he had been driving fast.

“We were waiting for her.”

He said they had been waiting for her.

توضیحات: فعل گذشته ی استمراری به گذشته ی کامل استمراری تبدیل می شود.

 

will Would

“I will call you.”

He said he would call me.

 

توضیحات: در نقل و قول غیر مستقیم "will" به "would" تبدیل می شود.

 

Can could

“I can play the guitar.”

He said he could play the guitar.

 

توضیحات: در نقل و قول غیر مستقیم "can" به "could" تبدیل می شود.

توجه داشته باشید که در نقل قول برخی از فعل ها تغییر نمی کنند.

Direct speech Indirect speech
"I could play soccer in my childhood." He told me he could play soccer in his childhood.
"I would like to be a doctor." He said he would like to be a doctor.
"I had seen this movie." He told me he had seen that movie.
"I should study more." He said that he should study more.

 

برای دسترسی به دروس بیشتر به لینک زیر مراجعه کنید.

گرامر صفر تا صد زبان انگلیسی

لسنینگ از مبتدی تا پیشرفته

لغات زبان انگلیسی به تفکیک موضوع

درک مطلب از سطح مبتدی تا پیشرفته

تمامی موضوعات آیلتس اسپیکینگ پارت یک، دو و سه همراه با جواب

 

لینک های مرتبط

 

گرامر درباره ی نقل قول مستقیم و غیر مستقیم

گرامر درباره ی سوال غیر مستقیم

گرامر درباره ی نقل قول

سوالات
Question No. 1/10

Mary: "I love chocolate."

Jill: "Mary said that she ........ chocolate."

Question No. 2/10

Mary: "I went skiing."

Jill: "Mary said that she ........ skiing."

Question No. 3/10

Mary: "I will eat steak for dinner."

Jill: "Mary said she ........ eat steak for dinner."

Question No. 4/10

Mary: "I have been to Sydney."

Jill: "Mary said she ........ to Sydney."

Question No. 5/10

Mary: "I have had three cars."

Jill: "Mary said that she ........ three cars.

Question No. 6/10

Mary: "I have three cars."

Jill: "Mary said that she ........ three cars.

Question No. 7/10

Mary: "I don't like spinach."

Jill: "Mary said she ........ like spinach."

Question No. 8/10

Compete with the correct verb.

"I'll do the washing up later."

He said, he do the washing.up later.

Question No. 9/10

Compete with the correct verb.

"He could read when he was three."

He told me he read when he was three.

Question No. 10/10

Compete with the correct verb.

"She hasn't eaten sushi before."

She told me she sushi before.

نظرات کاربران

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.