b2 Grammar for Modals of speculation

گرامر پیشرفته با مثال برای بیان حدس و گمان
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Modal verbs of speculation


Modals of Certainty

If we are fairly certain about something, must, can't and couldn't can be used to express this.

1 For present situations the modal verbs must, can't and couldn't are followed by the infinitive without to.

'I haven't slept for two days. 'You must be exhausted!'

Everyone here is wearing a football scarf, so we can’t be very far from the stadium.

The continuous infinitive can also be used.

Why is he wearing his uniform? He couldn't be going to school - it's Saturday today.

2 For past situations we use the same modal verbs + have + past participle.

I can't find my book. I must have left it at school.

This composition isn't very good. you can't have spent very long on it.

The continuous form can also be used.

'And then I lost control of the car:' 'You must have been driving too fast.'


mustn't is not normally used when speculating about present or past situations.


Modals of Possibility

If we are not certain about something but think it is possible, we use may (not), might (not) or could.

1 For present situations these modal verbs are followed by the infinitive without to. The continuous infinitive is also possible.

'Eds not answering my e-mails.' 'He might be on holiday.'

he could be telling the truth, but it's hard to believe.

2 For past situations we use the same modal verbs + have + past participle (the continuous form is possible).

I think we may have taken the wrong road. This doesn't look familiar.

'Sean looked a little sad.' 'He might not have been feeling very well.'


It is not possible to use can when speculating about present or past situations.


برای دسترسی به دروس بیشتر به لینک زیر مراجعه کنید.

گرامر صفر تا صد زبان انگلیسی

لسنینگ از مبتدی تا پیشرفته

لغات زبان انگلیسی به تفکیک موضوع

درک مطلب از سطح مبتدی تا پیشرفته

تمامی موضوعات آیلتس اسپیکینگ پارت یک، دو و سه همراه با جواب


Question No. 1/6

Choose TWO correct options.

Paul is behaving in a very unusual way. I think he ....... again.

Question No. 2/6

I think there ....... a mistake in your tax return. You should check it.

Question No. 3/6

If Suzan said that, it ....... true. She never lies.

Question No. 4/6

Sorry, but I'm not Connor. You ....... me for someone else.

Question No. 5/6

I'm not sure I trust Peter. He ....... the person wethink he is.

Question No. 6/6

Must have - Might have - Should have - Can't have (DO NOT USE CONTRACTIONS, write cannot instead)

1 John gone on holiday. I saw him this morning downtown.

2 Nobody answered the phone at the clinic. It closed early.

3 I revised more for my exams. I think I'll fail!

4 Sarah looks really pleased with herself. She passed her driving test this morning.

5 I didn't know you were going to Phil's party yesterday. You told me!

6 I can't believe Jim hasn't arrived yet. He caught the wrong train.

7 I can't believe Jim hasn't arrived yet. He caught the correct train.

8 Don't lie to me that you were ill yesterday. You been ill - Don said you were at the ice hockey match last night.

9 I don't know where they went on holiday but they bought Euros before they left so they gone to France or Germany.

10 His number was busy all night - he been on the phone continuously for hours.

11 It been Mickey I saw at the party. He didn't recognise me at all.

آغاز دوره های آنلاین آموزش زبان توسط استاد خصوصی

اینجا کلیک کنید

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.