Obligation and necessity

A

Must/mustn’t + infinitive without to

Must is used:

1 for strong obligations imposed by the speaker. The speaker uses muse to express his/her authority.

You must be here by 8 am. (manager to employee)

2 to give strong advice.

It's a great film. You really must go and see it.

3 to tell oneself what is necessary.

I must remember to phone Roger.

Must not or mustn't is used:

4 to talk about something that is not permitted.

Passengers must not smoke on the aircraft.

You mustn't drive without your seatbelt on in Britain.

5 to give strong advice.

You mustn't work too hard. You'll make yourself ill.

Past form of must

Must does not have a past form. had to is therefore used to refer to the past.

We had to write a formal letter in the exam.

Question form with must and have to

Must is possible in question forms:

Must you wear that horrible dress?

although have to is more common:

What do we have to do for homework?

B Have to/Don't have to

Have to is used to refer to strong obligations imposed by another person rather than by the speaker or writer.

I have to be at work by 8 o'clock. The boss will get angry if I'm late. (employee to a friend)

Don't have to expresses a lack of obligation.

I'm glad I don't have to wear a suit. It's so hot today.

C

The usage of Need to / Don't need to / Needn't

Need to is used to express necessity.

Can we go to the baker's next? I need to get some bread.

Don't need to/needn't express a lack of necessity.

we don't need to/needn 't leave yet. It's only 2 o'clock.

D

Should/Shouldn't + infinitive without to

Should and shouldn't are used to express obligation or give advice. Ought to can also be used with the same meaning as should.

You ought to/should see a doctor about your backache. If you're on a diet you shouldn't drink beer.

E

Be supposed to/had better

Be supposed to is used to talk about what you should do because of a rule or because it is expected.

Come on, its 10 o’clock. You're supposed to be in bed!

Had better+ infinitive without to   

is used to talk about what you should do because you think it's a good idea.

You'd better ask your dad before you borrow the car.

Modals for permission

To express permission it is possible to use can, may (more formal) or be allowed to. In the negative these express lack of permission, or prohibition.

You can order another drink but you can't have any more chips.

We aren't allowed to wear trainers to school.

May for past

May is not possible in the past. Could and be allowed to are possible for general permission.

In my last job we had flextime so we could arrive more or less when we wanted to.

Could for particular situation in the past

Could is not used when referring to a particular situation in the past. Only be allowed to is possible.

I was allowed to stay up late last night.

Let and make usage

Both these verbs are followed by the infinitive without to.

Let is used to express permission.

My dad never lets me watch that programme. 

Let is not normally used in the passive. Be allowed to is used instead.

I wasn't allowed to go to the party alone.

Make is used to express obligation.

The teacher made her do some extra homework.

make in passive

In the passive, make is followed by the infinitive with to.

He was made to pay for the window he had broken.

 

برای دسترسی به دروس بیشتر به لینک زیر مراجعه کنید.

گرامر صفر تا صد زبان انگلیسی

لسنینگ از مبتدی تا پیشرفته

لغات زبان انگلیسی به تفکیک موضوع

درک مطلب از سطح مبتدی تا پیشرفته

تمامی موضوعات آیلتس اسپیکینگ پارت یک، دو و سه همراه با جواب

 

سوالات
Question No. 1/12

Sorry I'm late; I ....... go to the bank on my way here.

Question No. 2/12

Letters for posting ....... be put in the outgoing mail box before 5 pm.

Question No. 3/12

We ....... bring our toys to school but we could only play with them at break time.

Question No. 4/12

I love Sundays as I ....... get up early.

Question No. 5/12

You ....... do what you like when you reach the age of 18. You don't have to do what your parents say.

Question No. 6/12

It's Tom's birthday. I ....... remember to get him a card.

Question No. 7/12

In most countries, children ....... go to school until they are 15 or 16.

Question No. 8/12

You ....... play near the road. You'll be run over and killed!

Question No. 9/12

Most working people ....... pay tax every year.

Question No. 10/12

I ....... watch TV after nine o'clock on weekdays when I was a child.

Question No. 11/12

Match the the words To the sentences.

Do they have to needn't have don't have to should must mustn't
Oh dear! My hair looks terrible. I ....... have it cut.
....... play their music so loudly? I've got a headache.
If he doesn't know how to start the computer, he ....... read the instructions.
You ....... bought any more food. We'd got enough for everyone.
You ....... forget to lock the door when you go out
You ....... finish the report today. You can do it tomorrow.
Question No. 12/12

Complete the sentence with correct form of the verb.

1 would you please let us out for a minute? (go)

2 the teacher made us homework in the class.(do)

3 we were made homework in the class. (do)

4 We weren't allowed anything to drink to the party.(bring)

نظرات کاربران

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.