Reported (or Indirect) Speech

Reported (or indirect) speech

 

Use reported speech to report what another person said.

از این گرامر برای نقل قول استفاده می کنیم. یعنی وقتی می خواهیم به یک نفرحرف یک نفر دیگر را بگوییم.

 

We often use “said” or “told” to report what another person said.

We can use “that” after “said” or “told”

The tense of the verb changes as follow.

می توان گفت کهتقریبا زمان فعل در نقل قول مستقیم، یک زمان به عقب باز می گردد.

Direct speech Reported speech توضیحات

Simple present

Simple past

اگر فعل اصلی در جمله حال ساده باشد باید در نقل قول آن را به گذشته ی ساده تبدیل کنیم.

“I like pizza.”

He said that he liked pizza.

“I love you.”

He told me that he loved me.

“I am happy.”

He said he was happy.

Present continuous Past continuous توضیحات

“I am washing my car.”

He said he was washing his car.

اگر فعل در جمله ی نقلقول مستقیم حال استمراری باشد باید آن را در نقلقول غیر مستقیم به حالت گذشته ی استمراری تبدیل کنیم.

“We are playing poker.”

They said they were playing poker.

 

Past simple Past perfect توضیحات

“I was in India.”

He said he had been in India.

اگر فعل در جمله ی نقل قول مستقیم گذشته ی ساده باشد باید به گذشته ی کامل تبدیل شود.

“I went to school yesterday.”

He told me that he had gone to school that day

 

Present perfect Past perfect توضیحات

“I have been a teacher since 1389.”

He said he had been a teacher since 1389.

اگر فعل در جمله ی نقل قول مستقیم حال کامل باشد باید به گذشته ی کامل تبدیل شود.

فعل گذشته ی ساده و حال کامل به یک فعل تبدیل می شود.

“We have studied English for a long time. “

He said they had studied English for a long time.

 

Past continuous Past perfect continuous توضیحات

“I was driving fast.”

He said he had been driving fast.

فعل گذشته ی استمراری به گذشته ی کامل استمراری تبدیل می شود.

“We were waiting for her.”

He said they had been waiting for her.

will Would

“I will call you.”

He said he would call me.

 

Can could

“I can play the guitar.”

He said he could play the guitar.

 

When the you want to report a ‘yes-no question’ you need to use ‘if, whether or not, whether….. or not’. The change of tense is the same as the previous part.

برای گزارش کردن سوالات "بلی و خیر" باید به شکل زیر عمل کرد. فعل به صورت حالت قبل تغییر می کند.

 

Direct Indirect rules

Are you married?

He asked me if I was married.

He asked me whether I was married or not.

He asked me whether or not I was married.

1- می بینید که در تمام جملات گزارشی فعل کمکی حذف شده است.

2- حالت سوالی به حالت جمله ی خبری تغییر یافته است.

جمله ی سوالی: فعل کمکی + فاعل+ فعل

جمله خبری: فاعل + فعل

3- در انتهای جمله ی گزارشی حتی اگر سوالی را گزارش کرده باشیم باید از نقطه استفاده کنیم. نه علامت سوال.

Did she like the food?

He asked if she had liked the food.

Have you ever got lost?

She asked me if I had got lost?

Were you playingwhen I called?

He asked if I had been playing when he called.

Can you swim?

He asked whether I could swim.

 

Note that in reported speech the form of question is changed to the form of statement. And at the end we need a full stop not a question mark.

توجه داشته باشید که وقتی می خواهید سوال را گزارش کنید اولا باید در حالت گزارش، حالت سوالی را به حالت جمله ی خبری تغییر بدهید و دوما در انتهای جمله ی گزارش نباید علامت سوال باشد.

 

Direct indirect rule

What is your name?

He asked what my name was.

در این حالت نیز باید ابتدا فعل کمکی را حذف کنیم.

سپس کلمه ی پرسشی مربوطه را استفاده کنیم.

بعد حالت جمله ی سوالی را به جمله ی خبری تغییر دهیم و در آخر علامت سوال را با نقطه عوض می کنیم.

 

Where were you yesterday?

She asked where I had been the previous day.

What have you been doing?

He asked what I had been doing.

Where did you work?

He asked where I had worked.

When were you born?

He asked when I had been born.

What can you do?

He asked what I could do.

 

“That” after reported verb is optional. He told me (that) he needed to go.

After “said” we don’t use a pronoun. He said me he needed to go.

After “told” we need a pronoun.

The reporting verbs are as follow:

 

1 2 3

State

Declared

Remark

Mentioned

Inform

Report

Announce

Respond

Reply

Promise

Indicate

Point out

Worry

Admit

Complain

Confess

Claim

Remind

Notify

Notice

Believer

 

برای دسترسی به دروس بیشتر به لینک زیر مراجعه کنید.

گرامر صفر تا صد زبان انگلیسی

لسنینگ از مبتدی تا پیشرفته

لغات زبان انگلیسی به تفکیک موضوع

درک مطلب از سطح مبتدی تا پیشرفته

تمامی موضوعات آیلتس اسپیکینگ پارت یک، دو و سه همراه با جواب

 

سوالات
Question No. 1/10

He said to her, "Are you coming to the party?"

Question No. 2/10

"Please don't go away", she said.

Question No. 3/10

He said to them, "Don't make a noise."

Question No. 4/10

My friend said to me, "Has your father returned from Calcutta"

Question No. 5/10

Rajesh said, "I bought a car yesterday."

Question No. 6/10

He says, "They will hurt you".

Question No. 7/10

Write the reported speech.

"He works in a bank."

She told me, ....... .

Question No. 8/10

"I'm coming!"

She said she ....... .

Question No. 9/10

"Why is Ali sad?"

He asked me ....... .

Question No. 10/10

"Do you like chocolate?"

She asked him ....... .

نظرات کاربران

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.