How to form superlatives and comparative

چگونه صفت تفضیلی و برتر بسازیم؟ استثنا ها در صفت های مقایسه ای
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1: Comparison

Comparatives and superlatives

A   Forms Regular one-syllable adjectives:

A    add -er and -est to the adjective:

Adjective : cheap

Comparative : cheaper

Superlative : the cheapest

Other examples: clean, dark, light, short, tall, slow

B   add -r and -st to adjectives ending in -e:

late     later       the latest

Other examples: large, loose, safe, strange, wise

c   double the consonant of adjectives ending in a short vowel and a consonant, and add -er and -est:

thin      thinner      the thinnest

Other examples: fat, sad, wet, red, big, hot, fit

2   Regular adjectives with more than one syllable

use more and most in front of the adjective:

sincere        more sincere          the most sincere

Other examples: boring, careful, modern, comfortable

B   change -y to -i and add -er and -est to adjectives ending in -y after a consonant:

happy        happier             the happiest

Other examples: dirty, friendly, funny, noisy, tidy, silly

C   a limited number of two-syllabic adjectives can form the comparative and superlative in two ways:

stupid       stupider        more stupid        the stupidest         the most stupid

Other examples: clever, common, polite, quiet, gentle

most adverbs form their comparative and superlative with more and most:

quietly         more quietly            the most quietly

a limited number have comparative and superlative forms with -er (or -r) and -est (or -st)

fast              faster           the fastest

Other examples: early, hard, late, long, soon

a: irregular adjectives in comparative and superlative






the best



the worst



the farthest/furthest



the oldest/eldest

b: Comparative and superlative form of adverbs:






the best



the worst



the least



the most

c: Irregular forms: determiners in comparative and superlative







the least



the fewest



the most

B    Use

1   To talk about people or things that arc different in some way we use:

a   Comparative forms of adjectives/adverbs + than.

I think listening is more difficnlt than reading.

For small differences use a bit, a little, slightly.

You need to work a little harder

For big differences use much, a lot, far, significantly.

My new car's much faster than my old one.

b Superlative forms of adjectives/adverbs:

That's the nicest thing you've said to me all day.

To emphasize the difference between one person or thing from all the others we can use by far:

This is by far the best book I've ever read.

c   Less ... than and the least

Rugby is less popular than football here. That's my least favourite track on the album.

As ... as

a For people or things that are the same in some way we use as + adjective/adverb +as.

Size's as intelligent as her sister.

Almost, nearly; just, twice, three times, etc can be used to qualify the comparisons.

There were nearly twice as many people at the party as last year.

So can replace the first as in negative sentences.

It's not so difficult as I thought it would be.

Quite and nearly can be used to qualify negative sentences of this type.

Her new film isn't nearly as bad as her last one. (= her new film is much better than her last one)

He's not quite so impatient as his brother.

(= he's a little more patient than his brother)

c    The same + noun + as

My mom 's the same age as my dad.

3    The + comparative, the + comparative

We use this structure for things which occur together .

The more money I have, the faster I spend it.


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Question No. 1/8

The ........ you study for these exams, the ........ you will do.

Question No. 2/8

She doesn't really like vodka, so the ........ a bottle you find, the ........ it will be for us!

Question No. 3/8

My neighbor is driving me mad! It seems that the ........ it is at night, the ........ he plays his music!

Question No. 4/8

He spent a year in India and loves spicy food. The ........ the food is, the ........ he likes it.

Question No. 5/8

Of course you can come to the party! The ........ the ........ .

Question No. 6/8

Write correct or incorrect in the gap.

Much less water flooded into the house than I expected.

There are less people here than promised to come.

Tennis is a far harder game than football.

The more you protest, more guilty you look!

This house is twice as big as the other one we saw.

Your dog is so friendlier than my one.

That company is considerably richest than that one.

That's by far the largest dam I've ever seen.

Question No. 7/8

Write the correct letter a,b, or c in the gap

Prague is one of the (1) popular tourist destinations in Europe. After all the political changes of the early 1990's, the capital of the Czech Republic began to take advantage of its beautiful cultural and architectural heritage to attract (2) tourists than ever before

Prague is a (3) city than many people imagine and it is (4) easy to move around this wonderful city on foot. Public transport is (5) in Prague than in (6) other European cities but it is often (7) to walk, enabling you to appreciate marvellous buildings you might have missed if you had been sitting on a bus or a tram.

(8) people leave the city of Prague without commenting on the superb food and drink available here. Eating out here is a (9) than it used to be but you can still have a three course meal for around $15 without any problems.

1.a. more b. most c. very

2.a. bigger b. more c. many

3.a. smaller b. more small c. smallest

4.a. very b. more c. such

5.a. very cheap b. more cheap c. cheaper

6.a. every b. most c. more

7.a. better b. more good c. most good

8.a. few b. much c. little

9.a. very cheaper b. little more expensive c. little cheaper

Question No. 8/8

Put the correct for of adjective in the gap.

This exam was (easy) than the exam in May.

You should drive (slowly) or you'll have an accident.

My new home is (near) from work than the old one.

The test wasn't as (difficult) as I thought.

This is the (far) place I've ever travelled to.

You look much (thin) than the last time I saw you.

My new computer is a bit (good) than the old one.

September is the (busy) month of the year for us.

There are (few) people today because it's been raining a lot.

The (tricky) part of the exam was the listening.

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