When reporting what someone has said or written we can use either direct speech or reported speech.
When we use direct speech we report the exact words which someone has used.
I’m staying here tomorrow,' said Heather.
When we use reported speech, changes may have to be made to verb tenses, pronouns and certain words indicating place and time.
Heather said she was staying there the next day.
1 The following changes are usually made to verbs. In each case the verb 'moves back' one tense.
'I work in an office,' he said.
We are going away on holiday,' she said.
'I've known her for a long time,' he said.
'He's been playing tennis,' she said.
'I saw Nigel in town,' he said.
'We were trying to help him,' she said.
When the situation is still true we don't change the tense of verb
He said he worked in an office.
She said they were going away on holiday.
He said he'd known her for a long time.
She said he'd been playing tennis.
He said that he'd seen Nigel in town.
She said they'd been trying to help him.
The modal verbs will, must, may and can change to would, had to, might and could.
a if the verb in the direct speech is in the past perfect.
'He had never spoken about it before,' she said.
She said he had never spoken about it before.
b if the direct speech contains one of the following modal verbs: would, might, could, should, ought to
'You should go to the doctor's,' he said.
He said I should go to the doctor's.
c if the statement being reported is still true,
I like fish,' she said.
She said she likes fish.
d if the reporting verb is in the present.
'It's 40° in Athens at the moment.' (Jeremy to his mother on the phone)
Jeremy says it's 40" in Athens at the moment. (Jeremy's mother to her husband)
Pronouns in direct speech may have to change when we use reported speech.
'I'll see you soon,' said Petet:
Peter said he would see me soon.
The following changes may also need to be made to words indicating place and time.
the next/following day
the next/following week
the day before, the previous day
two days ago
two days before/earlier
the week before, the previous week
'that book you lent me is really boring,' he said.
He said the book I had lent him was really boring.
1 tell is used with a direct object
He told me (that) he was getting married.
2 say and explain are used without a direct object.
She said (that) she was ill. (not She said me ... )
They can, however, be used with an indirect object.
I explained to them (that) I'd left my passport at home. (not I explained them ... )
3 Some reporting verbs can be used with an infinitive.
a verb + object noun/pronoun + infinitive with to advise, ask, encourage, invite, order, persuade, recommend, remind, tell, urge, warn
'Don't forget to phone Jim,' he told her.
fie reminded her to phone Jim.
b verb + infinitive with to offer, promise, refuse, threaten
'I'll help you mend the car if you like.' He offered to help me mend the car.
The following patterns can be used after both recommend and suggest:
He recommended/suggested (that) I (should) eat less sugar:
She recommended/suggested joining a youth club.
The infinitive with to can only be used after recommend.
When we report questions, we make the same changes
to verb tenses, pronouns and words indicating place and time as we do when we report statements. The following changes are also made:
- Auxiliary verbs: auxiliary verbs do, does and did are omitted
- Word order is the same as that of a statement.
- Punctuation Question marks are not used
- If there is no question word (what, where, who etc) in the direct question, we use if or whether.
'Does she smoke?'
He asked if/whether she smoked.
Each of these verbs can be used in two different ways in reported speech.
a Requests (ask + object + infinitive with to) 'Can you help me, please?'
He asked me to help him.
'Can you ride a horse?'
She asked me if I could ride a horse.
a Commands (tell+ object+ infinitive with to) 'Put your coat on.'
She told him to put his coat on.
'I can't find my coat.'
He told her (that) he couldn't find his coat.
برای دسترسی به دروس بیشتر به لینک زیر مراجعه کنید.
آغاز دوره های آنلاین آموزش زبان توسط استاد خصوصیاینجا کلیک کنید
با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.
هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.