Direct and reported speech

When reporting what someone has said or written we can use either direct speech or reported speech.

When we use direct speech we report the exact words which someone has used.

I’m staying here tomorrow,' said Heather.

When we use reported speech, changes may have to be made to verb tenses, pronouns and certain words indicating place and time.

Heather said she was staying there the next day.

A

How to make Reporting statements

1 The following changes are usually made to verbs. In each case the verb 'moves back' one tense.    

Direct Present simple speech

'I work in an office,' he said.

Direct Present continuous speech

We are going away on holiday,' she said.

Direct Present perfect speech

'I've known her for a long time,' he said.

Direct Present perfect continuous speech

 'He's been playing tennis,' she said.

Direct Past simple Speech

'I saw Nigel in town,' he said.

Direct Past continuous Speech

'We were trying to help him,' she said.

When the situation is still true we don't change the tense of verb

Reported speech Past simple

He said he worked in an office.

Reported speech Past continuous

She said they were going away on holiday.

Reported speech Past perfect

He said he'd known her for a long time.

Reported speech Past perfect continuous

She said he'd been playing tennis.

Reported speech Past perfect

He said that he'd seen Nigel in town.

Reported speech Past perfect continuous

She said they'd been trying to help him.

NB

The modal verbs will, must, may and can change to would, had to, might and could.

2

When No changes are made in the verb tense in reported speech

a if the verb in the direct speech is in the past perfect.

'He had never spoken about it before,' she said.

She said he had never spoken about it before.

b if the direct speech contains one of the following modal verbs: would, might, could, should, ought to

'You should go to the doctor's,' he said.

He said I should go to the doctor's.

c if the statement being reported is still true,

I like fish,' she said. 

She said she likes fish.

d if the reporting verb is in the present.

'It's 40° in Athens at the moment.' (Jeremy to his mother on the phone)

Jeremy says it's 40" in Athens at the moment. (Jeremy's mother to her husband)

3

Pronouns in direct speech

Pronouns in direct speech may have to change when we use reported speech.

'I'll see you soon,' said Petet:

Peter said he would see me soon.

4

words indicating place and time in reported speech

The following changes may also need to be made to words indicating place and time.

Direct speech

Reported speech

now

then

today

that day

this morning

that morning

tomorrow

the next/following day

next week

the next/following week

yesterday

the day before, the previous day

two days ago

two days before/earlier

last week

the week before, the previous week

here

there 

come

go

5

This, that, these and those in reported speech may change to the

'that book you lent me is really boring,' he said.

He said the book I had lent him was really boring.

B

Reporting verbs for statements

1 tell is used with a direct object

He told me (that) he was getting married.

2 say and explain are used without a direct object.

She said (that) she was ill. (not She said me ... )

They can, however, be used with an indirect object.

I explained to them (that) I'd left my passport at home. (not I explained them ... )

3 Some reporting verbs can be used with an infinitive.

a verb + object noun/pronoun + infinitive with to advise, ask, encourage, invite, order, persuade, recommend, remind, tell, urge, warn

'Don't forget to phone Jim,' he told her.

fie reminded her to phone Jim.

b verb + infinitive with to offer, promise, refuse, threaten

'I'll help you mend the car if you like.' He offered to help me mend the car.

4

How to use recommend and suggest

The following patterns can be used after both recommend and suggest:

He recommended/suggested (that) I (should) eat less sugar:

She recommended/suggested joining a youth club.

The infinitive with to can only be used after recommend.

C

Reporting questions

When we report questions, we make the same changes

to verb tenses, pronouns and words indicating place and time as we do when we report statements. The following changes are also made:

- Auxiliary verbs: auxiliary verbs do, does and did are omitted

- Word order is the same as that of a statement.

- Punctuation Question marks are not used

- If there is no question word (what, where, who etc) in the direct question, we use if or whether.

Yes/No questions in reported Questions

'Does she smoke?'

He asked if/whether she smoked.

Ask and tell in reported Questions

Each of these verbs can be used in two different ways in reported speech.

Ask

a Requests (ask + object + infinitive with to) 'Can you help me, please?'

He asked me to help him.

b Questions

'Can you ride a horse?'

She asked me if I could ride a horse.

2 Tell

a Commands (tell+ object+ infinitive with to) 'Put your coat on.'

She told him to put his coat on.

b Statement

'I can't find my coat.'

He told her (that) he couldn't find his coat.

 

برای دسترسی به دروس بیشتر به لینک زیر مراجعه کنید.

گرامر صفر تا صد زبان انگلیسی

لسنینگ از مبتدی تا پیشرفته

لغات زبان انگلیسی به تفکیک موضوع

درک مطلب از سطح مبتدی تا پیشرفته

تمامی موضوعات آیلتس اسپیکینگ پارت یک، دو و سه همراه با جواب

 

سوالات
Question No. 1/1
Report the following sentences.
1) "Did you arrive before seven?"
[ She asked me if . ]
2) "How was your holiday?"
[ She asked me . ]
3) "I would have visited the hospital, if I had known you were sick."
[ She said that she . ]
4) "Don't touch!"
[ She told me . ]
5) "Do you usually cook at home?"
[ She asked me if . ]
6) "They had never been to Scotland until last year."
[ She said that . ]
7) "Make sure you arrive early!"
[ She told me . ]
8) "I should have studied harder for the exam."
[ She said that . ]
9) "Would you mind telling me how to get to the art gallery, please?"
[ She asked me . ]
10) "Please don't forget my book."
[ She asked me . ]
11) "Make sure you arrive at six!"
[ She told me . ]
12) "Remember to study hard!"
[ She told me . ]
13) "Where do you want to eat tonight?"
[ She asked me . ]
14) "I usually drink coffee in the mornings."
[ She said that . ]
15) "Do you like studying English?"
[ She asked me if . ]
16) "I'll come and help you on Saturday."
[ She said that she . ]
17) "Please buy some bread on your way home."
[ She asked me . ]
18) "Please give this to John."
[ She asked me . ]
19) "Could you give me the glass on the table, please?"
[ She asked me .]
20) "Come quickly!"
[ She told me .]

نظرات کاربران

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.