B2 grammar about Relative clauses

گرامر پیشرفته درباره ی Relative clauses به همراه آزمون آنلاین و توضیحات کامل
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Relative clauses

Relative clauses give extra information about something or someone in the main clause.


Defining relative clauses

Defining relative clauses contain information which is essential for our understanding of the whole sentence.

The man who normally comes to clean our windows is on holiday this month.

He's got a computer program which translates texts from Spanish into English.

In each case, the relative clause identifies which person or thing is being talked about.

Features of defining relative clauses

No commas are required either at the beginning or the end of the relative clause.

For people For things
subject subject
who/that which/that


For people For things
Object Object
who/that/whom which/that


For people For things
Possessive Possessive
whose whose

* whom is more formal than who

The relative pronoun can be omitted if it is the object of the verb in the relative clause.

I'm enjoying the book (whichlthat) you lent me.

The relative pronoun cannot be omitted if it is the subject of the verb in the relative clause.

That's the shop assistant who/that served me the last time I came here.


Non-defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses contain information which is not essential for our understanding of the sentence.

We can identify which person or thing is being talked about without the information in the relative clause.

Their new house, which has five bedrooms and a games room, is much larger than their previous one.

At the party she spoke to Mr. Peterson, whose father owned the company she worked for.

Features of non-defining relative clauses

Commas are required both at the beginning and the end of the relative clause (except when the end of the relative clause is also the end of the sentence).

That cannot be used in place of who or which

 No commas are required either at the beginning or the end of the relative clause.

For people For things
subject subject
who which


For people For things
Object Object
who/whom which


For people For things
Possessive Possessive
whose whose

Relative pronouns cannot be omitted from non­-defining relative clauses.

Her maths teacher, who/whom everyone in the class adored, announced that he was leaving the school.

Non-defining relative clauses are more common in written English.

Which can be used in non-defining relative clauses to refer to a whole clause.

No one phoned him on his birthday, which made him feel rather depressed.


Relative clauses and prepositions

1 Prepositions usually come at the end of defining and non-defining relative clauses.

In defining relative clauses the relative pronoun is usually omitted.

The town I grew up in has changed a lot since I left.

In non-defining relative clauses the relative pronoun is never omitted.

Keith Rolf, who I used to work with, lives in Paris now.

2 In more formal English, prepositions often come before the relative pronouns whom for people and which for things (in which case the pronoun cannot be omitted).

We shall be visiting the room in which Turner painted some of his greatest works.

The head waiter, to whom we addressed our complaint, was not particularly helpful.


Relative adverbs: where, when and why

Where, when and why can be used in relative clauses after nouns which refer to a place (where), a time (when) or a reason (why).

Where has the meaning 'in/at which'

Defining: They've booked a week in that campsite where we stayed last year.

Non-defining: She's in Southlands Hospital, where you were born.

When has the meaning 'on/in which'

When can be omitted in defining relative clauses.

Defining: Do you remember that day (when) we went to Rhyl and it snowed?

Non-defining: I'm going on holiday in September,when most people are back at work.

Why has the meaning 'for which'

Why can be omitted in defining relative clauses.

Defining: The reason (why) I'm phoning is to ask you for Tina's address.


برای دسترسی به دروس بیشتر به لینک زیر مراجعه کنید.

گرامر صفر تا صد زبان انگلیسی

لسنینگ از مبتدی تا پیشرفته

لغات زبان انگلیسی به تفکیک موضوع

درک مطلب از سطح مبتدی تا پیشرفته

تمامی موضوعات آیلتس اسپیکینگ پارت یک، دو و سه همراه با جواب


Question No. 1/10

Choose the best relative pronoun to complete each sentence. If there is none required, put "X"

1 It was Wilson gave me the old map and he had found it in a old junk shop.

2 My uncle apologised for his insult, we accepted gracefully.

3 Hank put the keys down on the table was in the kitchen.

4 Much your father left in his will is going to your mother.

5 Unfortunately, the car hit the dog I love so much and it was killed.

6 That car, owner was arrested by the police, has been parked there ever since.

7 There are several reasons for the closure of the school, most of have already been explained fully.

8 This was the room we first met and spoke. Do you remember?

Question No. 2/10

1. I cannot remember the reason ....... he wanted us to leave.

Question No. 3/10

2. She's the most hard-working student ....... I've ever had.

Question No. 4/10

3. The company gave a promotion to John, ....... department performed best last year.

Question No. 5/10

4. I didn't get a pay raise, but this was not the reason ....... I left.

Question No. 6/10

5. I went to the party ....... I was going to see Mark.

Question No. 7/10

6. We don't know all the guests ....... were invited to the party.

Question No. 8/10

7. Do you know the man ....... lives across the street?

Question No. 9/10

8. The party ....... was organized by Mary gave us much pleasure.

Question No. 10/10

Fill in the correct relative pronoun.

Possible careers in music

Q: I was wondering what some of the different career opportunities are in music other than being a singer or professional musician?
A: There are a million different jobs in music (who/which) don't involve performing professionally; it's a great business for that.
One obvious one is in teaching; you can go to college and become a professional music teacher either for schools or as a private tutor. Peripatetic teachers, ones (that/which)travel from school to school, are very popular just now.
Another suggestion is in music therapy. This can be helping people (who/which) have physical or mental disabilities to use music as a tool in co-ordination. It can also help accident victims to re-use limbs (who/that) have been broken or to come to terms with trauma.
If you are into instruments, you can look at the art of making and repairing either modern instruments such as in piano tuning or by learning the skills to recreate old instruments. You'd probably need to talk to a museum (who/whose/that) specialises in these instruments about what qualifications you'd need. In the same vein there is conservation work to be had by training to restore old instruments in museums or conserve old manuscripts.
For every person upfront enjoying the limelight there are about two hundred people backstage working in music. There are recording engineers, artist managements, artists, songwriters, and A&R (artist and repertoire - the people (who/whom) discover new acts). In broadcasting there are music journalists, presenters, DJs and researchers.
Then there are all the people within local government (who/whom/which) run arts centres, festivals and events. There are the entrepreneurs, agents and party planners. Within the film world there are the people (who/whose) put music into the movies (music supervisors) as well as any number of people (who/whom/which) work in the legal side of things; copyright is a burgeoning area of the law in (who/which/that) music lawyers make an absolute mint.
Don't forget the retail side of things; running a record shop takes a true love of music if you want to get it right.
Basically, if you let your mind think laterally, there is a music job out there (whom/that)will suit you...

آغاز دوره های آنلاین آموزش زبان توسط استاد خصوصی

اینجا کلیک کنید

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.