FCE Gerunds and infinitives Vocabulary Sport

گرامر Gerunds and infinitives و کلمات مرتبط با ورزش کتاب اف سی ای
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Language focus 2: Gerunds and infinitives

1 Look at the underlined words in the following extracts from the reading text. For each one, explain why a gerund, an infinitive without to, or an infinitive with to is used.
Example:
a to make : the infinitive with to is used to express purpose, the reason why something is done.
a … the obstacles which are put in every rugby player’s path to make it harder for him to score points
b This can be done … by throwing you to the ground.
c … the backs keep passing along the line …
d … we need to look at how to deal with these obstacles.

Question No. /

Match the verbs and the reasons.

gerund after prepositions infinitive of purpose based form after modals infinitive after adjective gerund after some verbs infinitive after some verbs
be done
to make
passing
to look
throwing
to score

2 Some verbs can be followed by a gerund and some others can be followed by an infinitive with to. Complete each of the following sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. One verb in each sentence will be a gerund, the other an infinitive with to.

Question No. /

1 When I suggested (go) skiing at the weekend she was extremely enthusiastic and we arranged (meet) at seven o’clock on Saturday morning.
2 I can’t help (smile) when I see my dad playing tennis. He’s had hundreds of lessons but he still hasn’t learnt (hit) the ball properly.
3 Paul seems (enjoy) playing golf. He’s even considering (buy) his own set of clubs.
4 One of my cousins has promised (take) me windsurfing as soon as I’ve finished (study).
5 At first my parents refused (let) me go to karate lessons, but I kept (ask) and eventually they agreed.


3 Some verbs can be followed by more than one verb form. Underline the correct alternatives in the following sentences. In some sentences more than one alternative is correct.
Question No. /

1 It started ......... so they had to postpone the match.

Question No. /

2 I only stopped ......... a rest once during the whole marathon.

Question No. /

3 Jones continued .......... football professionally until he was forty.

Question No. /

4 These exercises should help you .......... faster.

Question No. /

5 Remember .......... water before the race.

Question No. /

6 Sally tried ......... a heavier racket, and she played a little better.


Gerunds and infinitives


A The gerund is used in the following cases:
1  as the subject/object/complement of a clause or sentence:
Subject : Reading in the car makes me feel sick.
Object : I find shopping for clothes really boring.
Complement : My favourite sport is swimming.
2  after prepositions
I’m not very good at making things.
after certain verbs
Peter suggested going for a picnic.
B  The infinitive with to is used:
to express purpose
I’m learning English to help me get a better job.

after many adjectives, e.g. delighted, disappointed, easy,
happy, important, lucky, necessary, normal, possible, surprised
I was surprised to hear she had failed the exam.
after certain verbs
He offered to give her a lift, but she decided to walk.
C  The infinitive without to is used:
after modal verbs.
You can look at it, but you mustn’t touch it.
2  after help, let, make, would rather, had better
I’d better go – it’s late. I’d rather stay here, though.
To is optional if an infinitive is used after help.
Classical music helps me (to) relax.
D  Gerunds and infinitives after verbs
1  Verb + gerund:
Have you finished cleaning your room?
The following verbs, like finish, are normally followed by the gerund:
a  certain verbs expressing likes and dislikes : adore, detest, dislike, enjoy, don’t mind, can’t stand
b  other verbs:admit, avoid, can’t help, consider, delay, deny, feel like, forgive, give up, imagine, involve, keep, mind, miss, postpone, put off, practise, prevent, regret, resist, risk, suggest
2  Verb + infinitive with to:
He promised not to tell anyone what she had said.
a  The following verbs, like promise, are normally followed by the infinitive with to:(can’t) afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, choose, decide, deserve, expect, fail, hesitate, hope, learn, manage, offer, prepare, pretend, refuse, seem.
b  With these verbs, a direct object is needed:
advise, allow, enable, encourage, force, invite, order, persuade, recommend, remind, teach, tell, warn.
My job enables me to use my language skills.
c  The infinitive with to is also used after:
would like, would love, would hate, would prefer.
Verb + gerund or infinitive with to:
like, love, hate and prefer are usually followed by the gerund . However, the infinitive with to is also possible with little, if any, difference in meaning.
I love going/to go for long walks in the hills.
The infinitive with to is common after hate for specific situations, and after like when it means be in the habit of.
I hate to interrupt, but we really must be going.
I like to have a shower when I get home from work.
bbegin, start, continue and intendcan be followed by the gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning.
She fell over and started crying/to cry.
c forget, remember, go on, mean, need, stop and try can be followed by the gerund or the infinitive with to, but with a change in meaning .
• remember + gerund = recall a previous action
I remember coming here when I was young.
forget + gerund is not often used to talk about an action you do not recall. Instead, not remember is used.
I don’t remember seeing Jim at the party.
remember/forget + infinitive = (not) remember what you have to do

We must remember to feed the cat before we go.
Don’t forget to phone me if you need any help.
go on + gerund = continue with the same activity
Some footballers go on playing professionally until  they’re nearly 40.
go on + infinitive = change to a different activity
After a successful career as a football player, Johan Cruyff went on to become a respected manager.
mean + gerund = involve
Dieting usually means giving up things you enjoy.
mean + infinitive = intend
I meant to phone the electrician but I forgot.
need + gerund = (passive meaning)
This house needs painting. (= needs to be painted)
need + infinitive = (active meaning)
I need to get some new shoes.
stop + gerund = no longer do something
I’ve stopped smoking: it’s too expensive.
stop + infinitive = interrupt one activity in order to do another
Let’s stop to buy some sweets on the way home.
try + gerund = experiment in order to see what will happen
Try resting for a while: you might feel better then.
try + infinitive = attempt to do something
Alan tried to stop the thief as he ran away.

4 The verbs in the box can be used to talk about our likes and  dislikes. They are all usually followed by the gerund. Write each verb in an appropriate place on the line below according to the strength of its meaning.

STRONG LIKE

Question No. /

Put the words in correct order.

quite like
detest
hate
don’t mind
don’t like
love
really enjoy
absolutely adore
can’t stand

STRONG DISLIKE 

5 Certain adjectives followed by a preposition and the gerund  can also be used to talk about what does and doesn’t  interest you. Study the following table and complete each space with a preposition from the box. The first one has been  done for you.
at    in    on   about    with    of

Question No. /

I’m (really) keen on sport/cinema etc
I’m not (really) interested listening to … etc
I’ve never been fond watching …
I’ve always been good/bad playing …
I get (really) bored doing …
I never get excited going …


6 Write eight sentences about your likes and dislikes using the language you have just studied. TALK ABOUT IT
Examples:
Preposition + gerund: I never get excited about going to the cinema.
Verb + gerund: I quite like listening to jazz.
Gerund as subject: Collecting postcards is one of my favourite pastimes.
7 Compare your sentences with your partner’s. Ask questions about each other’s likes and dislikes.
Example:
A: I’ve always been keen on going to the cinema.
B: How often do you go?
A: I tend to go once every two weeks or so.
B: And what are your favourite films?
A: Well, I really enjoy watching science fiction, but I don’t like films with a lot of violence. I get bored very easily if there are lots of deaths.
You may be asked to talk about your interests in Part 1 of the Speaking test. Make sure you develop your answers, explaining and justifying your opinions.

Vocabulary 2: Sport


1 Underline the correct alternative in these extracts from the reading text.

Question No. /

a You ........... the ball over your opponent’s ...........

Question No. /

b … obstacles which are put in every rugby player’s path to make it harder for him to ........... points …

Question No. /

c ... the ball can only be ........... backwards.

Question No. /

d … chess ........... have special functions …

Question No. /

e He’ll get thrown off the ........... by the opposition …


2 Can you name all the sports in the pictures? Write the name of each sport next to the verb which it is used with. The first one has been done for you. Write do, go ar play
do athletics .

Question No. /

gymnastics

volleyball

cycling

skiing

swimming

tennis

Yuga

football

kongfu

golf


3 a Write the name of the sport with which each group of four nouns is associated. The first one has been done for you.
Question No. /

1tennis court net racket backhand
2 pitch referee corner foul
3 course green clubs hole
4 slope sticks run goggles
5 track field event lane meeting
6 saddle helmet pedals peloton


b Add each of these nouns to the appropriate group in a.
red card    fairway    gears    lift     service     triple jump

Question No. /

Match the words to correct sport.

gears triple jump fairway red card lift service
tennis
soccer or football
athletics
golf
skiing
cycling

4 a Complete each gap with a verb from the box.
beat     draw     hit     take     take     win
Question No. /

1 Which sports place on an ice rink?
2 Which country’s football team Holland to win the 2010 World Cup Final?
3 Which medal does a runner-up ?
4 In which sports do you the ball with a racket?
5 How many players from each team can part at one time in a game of basketball?
6 If two hockey teams nil–nil, how many goals are scored?


5 Work in pairs. DO IT NOW
Student A Choose a sport and explain the rules to your partner.
Student B Imagine that you are not familiar with your partner’s sport. Ask your partner any questions that are necessary to help you fully understand the rules.
When you have finished, change roles.

express purpose
بیان هدف
arranged
ترتیب داده شده است
can't help
نمی توانم کنترل کنم
considering
باتوجه به
refused
رد کردن
appropriate place
مکان مناسب
detest
نفرت داشتن
don't mind
مهم نیست
can't stand
نمی تواند تحمل کند
absoulutely adore
کامل عاشق چیزی بودن
keen on
مشتاق به
fond of
علاقمند به
court
زمین والیبال و بسکتبال
track
زمین دو و میدانی
backhand
ضربه با پشت راکت
foul
خطا در فوتبال
slope
پیست اسکی
stick
چوب در ورزش اسکی
goggles
عینک شنا
meeting
رخداد دوچرخه سواری
saddle
زین دوچرخه
peloton
گروهی از دوچرخه سواران
fairway
مسیر درست توپ در گلف
gears
چرخ دنده ها
triple jump
پرش سه گام
beat
شکست خوردن
draw
مساوی کردن
take place
برگزار شدن
runner up
نفر دوم
take part
شرکت داشتن
nil-nil
صفر-صفر

آغاز دوره های آنلاین آموزش زبان توسط استاد خصوصی

اینجا کلیک کنید

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.