FCE gapped text and use of english unit two

ریدینگ و کاربرد انگلیسی پارت شش امتحان اف سی ای و گرامر Gerunds and infinitives
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Reading and Use of English part 6

Gapped text
1 You are going to read an article about the game of rugby. Look at the photographs, which show men and women playing rugby, and discuss the following questions.
How much do you know about rugby? What are some of the rules of the game? The article you are going to read says that ‘rugby is rather like chess’: why do you think it makes this comparison? TALK ABOUT IT

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2 Read through the base text (the main text with the gaps). Are any of your ideas from exercise 1 mentioned? DO IT
3Six sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A–G the one which fits each gap (1–6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

How to go about it
• Check that the whole sentence fits in with the meaning of the text before and after the gap. To help you do this, some words and phrases are written in bold. These show connections between the language in the text and the language in the missing sentences. A number of grammatical words such as them, this and these are written in italics to show further connections.
Note: these connections are not shown in the
First examination.
• Now look at gap number 1. The words in bold before and after the gap indicate that the
missing sentence:
a refers back to the words uncomplicated and get points
b refers forward to the different ways of getting points.
When you think you have found the sentence, read the whole paragraph again to check that it fits.
• Now complete each of the remaining gaps with an appropriate sentence. Do not choose a sentence simply because it contains a word which also appears in the base text.
For example, the word obstacles, before gap number 2, is repeated in sentence G, but this does not necessarily mean that G is the correct answer.
• When you have finished, check that the sentence which you have not used does not fit into any of the gaps.

Question No. /

How to play … rugby
Welcome to a sport which will enchant and excite you, and take you to the heights and the depths of human emotion. Learn the rules and you will be unable to resist it. Rugby is a game of 40-minute halves with the most uncomplicated of objectives – to get more points than your opponent. 1 You either touch the ball down over your opponents’ line, known as a try, for five points, or kick the ball over your opponent’s posts; three points for a dropped goal and a penalty, two points for a conversion (kicking the ball between the posts after a try).

The complexities in rugby arise as a result of the obstacles which are put in every rugby player’s path to make it harder for him to score points. 2This can be done in three ways: by throwing you to the ground, by teaming up with other players to push against you when you have the ball in your hands or by pushing against you when the ball is on the ground.

There is also the law that says the ball can only be passed backwards. 3 This is clearly rather difficult to do when you have fifteen very large opponents standing in front of you ready to throw you to the floor if they get anywhere near you.

Each team is made up of eight forwards and seven backs. The job of the forwards is to get the ball for the quicker, lighter backs to score. Rugby is rather like chess: chess pieces have special functions, in the same way that rugby players have specific tasks to perform. Within these roles they both employ various moves to get to the other side. 4Rugby is a game in which all the players work together, and the better their relationships and understanding of one another, the better their chances of getting one of their team to the try-line.

5 The tools you need to overcome them are simple: time and space. When you hear commentators talking of tactics or strategies, they’re just talking about the various ways in which you ‘create space’ or ‘make time’. For example, if the backs keep passing along the line they will eventually run into problems, as the last player has no one else to pass to, and no space to run in. He’ll get thrown off the pitch by the opposition, and the ball will go to them.


There are tactics like miss-moves (missing someone out in the line so that a defending player runs the wrong way and leaves a gap) and dummies (pretending to pass so the opposition runs the wrong way). 6

There are a few other things which could be mentioned, but basically, rugby is nowhere near as complicated as it looks. It is, after all, just a game.

A The point at which rugby becomes much more fun than a board game is in its team dynamics.
B However, this complexity in the rules of rugby does not make the game any less exciting to play, or indeed, to watch.
C The methods of scoring are equally simple.
D Because of this rule, players have to run forwards or they’ll end up back on their own line.
E These strategies are both ways of tricking the opposition into opening up a gap in the defence for you to run through before you run out of space.
F One such difficulty is that the opposing team can physically stop you from scoring.
G Now we know the aim of playing rugby, and the nature of the obstacles that stand in the way, we need to look at how to deal with these obstacles.

Reacting to the text
Would you be interested in watching or playing rugby? Why/Why not? TALK ABOUT IT
Are there any sports you have not played but would like to try out? If so, which one(s)? TALK ABOUT IT

enchant
مسحور کردن
excite
برانگیختن
the height and the depths of
فراز و نشیب
unable to resist it
قادر به مقاومت کردن نیستید
uncomplicated
ساده
objectives
هدف ها
opponent
حریف
complexities
پیچیدگی ها
arise
بوجود آمدن
obstacles
موانع
backwards
به عقب
chess pieces
مهره های شطرنج
functions
کارکرد
specific tasks
وظایف مخصوص
employ various moves
از حرکات مختلف استفاده کنید
overcome
غلبه بر
commentators
گزارشگر
eventually
در نهایت
run into problems
به مشکل برخورد
pitch
زمین چمن
opposition
حریف
defending player
بازیکن مدافع
board game
بازی با تخته و مهره
equally simple
به همان اندازه ساده
triking the opposition
فریب حریف
aim
هدف
deal with
سر و کار داشتن

آغاز دوره های آنلاین آموزش زبان توسط استاد خصوصی

اینجا کلیک کنید

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.