Linking paragraphs together

در این قسمت با کلمات ربطی آشنا می شوید که جملات مختلف یک پاراگراف را به هم متصل می کنند. این کلمات همچنین می توانند در ابتدای یک پاراگراف مورد استفاده قرار گیردند در این صورت نقش آنها برقراری ارتباط معنایی بین دو پاراگراف خواهد بود. پس نتیجه می گیریم که این کلمات را باید آموخت تا بتوان نمره ی (Coherence & cohesion) را گرفت.

For adding things on (برای افزودن چند مطلب دیگر)

again… also… in addition… as well as… moreover… furthermore… still… next… what is more… and

To give examples (برای مثال آوردن)

for example… for instance… one example is… to illustrate… namely… as an illustration… in this case

To contrast (برای نشان دادن تضاد)

however… but… although… despite… nevertheless… on the contrary… yet… even so… even though… on the other hand

To repeat (برای بیان جمله ی تکراری)

as I have said… as has been said… as has been noted… moreover… furthermore

To show argument (برای بیان دلایل و نتیجه گیری)

therefore… thus… because… evidently… although… meanwhile… in conclusion… however as a result… moreover… at this point… consequently… since… hence

To emphasise (برای تاکید)

indeed… in fact… certainly… especially… particularly… unquestionably… without any doubt… definitely

To make a concession (برای نشان دادن تضاد)

whilst… although… even though… however

To put things in sequence (برای نشان دادن ترتیب چیزی)

first… firstly… second… secondly (etc)… then… after that… following… again… and… and so forth… and so on… subsequently… later… finally… thereafter… to conclude… lastly

To sum up or conclude (برای جمع بندی و نتیجه گیری)

finally… as a conclusion… to conclude… all in all… in other words… in short… in brief… to sum up… as I have said… as has been stated… on the whole… in general

Cause and Effect Conjunctions (برای نشان دادن علت و معلول)

Here are some common conjunctions that can be used to express cause and effect:

 

Conjunction

Conjunction

Conjunction

since

as a result

because of + noun phrase

because

therefore

due to + noun phrase

consequently

for this reason

so

There are two things you must be careful of when using these conjunctions. First, you must order the cause and the effect corerctly. For example, in the sentence

توجه داشته باشید که کلمات علت و معلول را باید درست استفاده کنید. به مثال زیر دقت کنید.

Sally closed the window because the weather outside was cold.

the CAUSE is the fact that the room was cold, and the EFFECT is Sally's closing the window. The conjunction because is placed in the correct position here, which is right before the cause. Similarly, in the sentence

در این جمله سرد بودن هوا علت است و بستن پنجره معلول می باشد. ما کلمه ی (because) را باید برای علت استفاده کنیم و اگر برای معلول استفاده کنیم جمله اشتباه می شود. ما می توانیم این علت را اول جمله استفاده کنیم و هم می توانیم آن را آخر جمله به کار بریم. به مثال زیر دقت کنید که علت اول جمله بیان شده است.

Because the weather outside was cold, Sally closed the window.

the conjunction because is correctly placed before the part of the sentence that expresses the cause, even though the subordinate clause because the room was cold is now at the beginning of the sentence. (Note that the first letter of the conjunction is now capitalized.) However, in this sentence:

جمله ی زیر اشتباه بیان شده زیرا (because) را برای معلول استفاده کرده ایم.

The weather outside was cold because Sally closed the window. (wrong)

even though it is grammatical, it does not make sense because a person's opening or closing a window does not influence the weather.

Second, you should be careful when using commas. Conjunctions such as therefore, consequently, as a result, and for this reason are usually followed by a comma, as in these examples:

The weather was cold; therefore, Sally closed the window.

The weather was cold. Therefore, Sally put on her coat.

The weather was cold. Consequently, Sally put on her scarf.

A blizzard hit the town. As a result, the schools were closed.

The adverbial clause conjunctions since and because are exceptions. These are attached directly at the beginning of CAUSE-sentence without a comma, as in the example above, Because the weather outside was cold, Sally closed the window. The comma here is placed at the end of the subordinate clause.

The coordinating conjunction so is also different from the ones above. This conjunction has a comma before it, as in this sentence:

The weather was warm, so Jim turned on the air conditioner.

However, in formal academic writing, so may not be used at the beginning of a sentence (although you will often see it in informal writing):

The weather was warm. So Jim turned on the air conditioner. (too informal -- avoid this usage)

نظرات کاربران

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.