Before starting, there are two grammar phrases students need to know:
- coordinating conjunctions
- subordinate conjunctions
یکی از روش های بسیار موثر در تغییر جمله این است که از حروف ربط برای متصل کردن دو جمله استفاده کنیم. با استفاده از این کلمات جملات ما از حالت دو جمله ی ساده (Simple sentence) به یک جمله ی مشتق (Compound sentence) تبدیل می شود. در درس های بعدی بیشتر درباره ی این جملات صحبت خواهد شد.
Coordinating conjunctions are used to write compound sentences.
A compound sentence is two simple sentences (two independent clauses) joined by a comma and a special joining word, often called a coordinating conjunction.
These conjunctions are small words that join two sentences without changing the sentences very much. These conjunctions go in between two sentences; they usually don’t go at the beginning or end of a sentence.
There are seven conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. This group of conjunctions is sometimes called FANBOYS. Each FANBOYS word has a different purpose.
For tells us the reason.
They love music, for it is exhilarating.
And means in addition.
My father likes to drink coffee, and my mother enjoys reading the newspaper.
Nor is negative.
John doesn’t do his homework, nor does he want to study.
But and yet show contrast.
Sally is good at archery, but she prefers soccer.
Or gives another reason or choice.
I need to take a break, or I will go nuts.
So tells us the result.
My student’s family doesn’t have much money, so he dropped out of school.
Yet show us a contrast; similar to but.
He is very fat, yet he still eats cookies and cake everyday.
Here are some example.
The students went to school. They did not want to go to school.
The students went to school, but they did not want to.
She was thirsty after exercising. She drank a whole bottle of water.
She was thirsty after exercising, so she drank a whole bottle of water.
در صورتی که دو فعل و دو ضمیر در جمله وجود دارد قبل از استفاده از این کلمات ربط ما می بایست از یک کاما یا ویرگول در اینگلیسی استفاده کنیم. در صورتی که یک فعل با دو ضمیر و یا یک ضمیر با دو فعل در جمله وجود دارد نیازی به استفاده از کاما نیست.
In both examples above, there is a comma before the FANBOYS word. A comma is used when there are two subjects and two verbs. When you have a sentence with just nouns or verbs you don’t need a comma.
I want milk and cookies.
She ran to the store and bought a loaf of bread.
با استفاده از این گرامر قادر خواهید بود دو عبارت را به هم متصل کنید و یک جمله ی پیچیده (Complex sentence) بسازید. در ادامه به این گونه جملات بیشتر پرداخته خواهد شد.
Subordinate conjunctions words join two clauses to make a complex sentence. A complex sentence has an independent clause and a dependent clause.
They are similar to the coordinating conjunctions, but there are two differences.
این نوع کلمات را می توان در ابتدای جمله هم مورد استفاده قرار داد.
1 Subordinate conjunctions can go at the front of the sentence or in the middle.
2 You have to change some words in one of the sentences.
There are lots of words which can be used to join sentences with subordination. Here are some of these words.
- after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though
- for, if, if only, rather than, since, that, though, unless, until,
- when, where, whereas, wherever, whether, which, while
به مثال زیر دقت کنید که چگونه ای دو جمله با هم متصل شده اند و یک جمله ی پیچیده را تشکیل داده اند.
The computer was making a loud noise.
The computer was broken.
The computer was making a loud noise because it was broken.
Because the computer was broken, it was making a loud noise.
با توجه به توضیحات بالا می توان از اتصال دو جمله برای پارافریز کردن تاپیک در آزمون آیلتس بهره برد. با اینکار شما شانس بالایی برای گرفتن نمره ی خوب در آزمون خواهید داشت.
Part A: Combine Sentences with FANBOYS
Each question has two sentences. Combine the two sentences into one sentence using for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
I like grilled pork. I don't like spicy rice cake.
I like grilled pork, but I don't like spicy rice cake.
1 Jennifer was good at science. Her sister had trouble with writing.
2 We can go to the new chicken restaurant. We can order in.
3 That movie scares me. I don't want to watch the movie.
4 We passed through passport control. The four of us boarded the airplane.
5 The zoo's only elephant was starving. It had not eaten since last week.
6 I really disliked that teacher. I still wanted to take his class.
7 I will not see you today. I will not see you tomorrow.
1 Jennifer was good at science, but her sister had trouble with writing.
2 We can go to the new chicken restaurant, or we can order in.
3 That movie scares me, so I don't want to watch it.
4 We passed through passport control, and the four of us boarded the airplane.
5 The zoo's only elephant was starving, for it had not eaten since last week.
6 I really disliked that teacher, yet I still wanted to take his class.
7 I will not see you today, nor will I see you tomorrow.
Part B: Combine Sentences with Joining Words
Join the sentences to make a new complex sentence. Use these joining words: after, although, because, before, since, unless, while, ....
She has known him for two years. They are not close friends.
Although she has known him for two years, they are not close friends.
1 I have no money. I can't go to the play.
2 Polar bears are cute. The mothers are dangerous if they think you are threatening their cubs.
3 Some university classes are challenging. Others classes are boring.
4 The typhoon ended on Thursday. Everybody went to the beach to examine the damage.
5 My pet has fleas. It needs a bath.
6 The party ended. We went to the beach to watch the sunset.
7 You must plan your time wisely. Otherwise, you won't be able to study for all nine exams next month.
1 Since I have no money, I can't go to the play.
2 Although polar bears are cute, the mothers are dangerous if they think you are threatening their cubs.
3 Some university classes are challenging, while others classes are boring.
4 After the typhoon ended on Thursday, everybody went to the beach to examine the damage.
5 My pet needs a bath because it has fleas.
6 Before the party ended, we went to the beach to watch the sunset.
7 Unless you plan your time wisely, you won't be able to study for all nine exams next month.
یک روش دیگر برای ادقام دو جمله استفاده از relative clause ها می باشد.
Relative clauses provide extra information about something. In this lesson, we use relative clauses to talk about nouns. So in this lesson, a relative clause acts like an adjective.
These relative clauses begin with three relative pronouns: “which, that or who.” Here are three examples.
- Motorcycle racing is a dangerous sport. It is enjoyed by many young people.
Motorcycle racing is a dangerous sport which is enjoyed by many young people.
- The cat loved a mouse. The mouse was beautiful.
The cat loved a mouse that was beautiful.
- Alfred Einstein was a famous scientist. He won a Noble prize for his work in theoretical physics.
Alfred Einstein was a famous scientist who won a Noble prize for his work in theoretical physics.
An appositive is a noun that describes another noun. Appositives can be a single word or many words (a phrase). An appositive looks like a relative clause but there are no words like ‘which, who or that’ at the beginning of the clause.
Here are three examples; the appositives are in red.
The appositive can go at the front of the sentence. Like this:
- A skilled but wild hockey player, Jack skated to the referee and punched him in the nose.
An appositive can go in the middle of the sentence, usually with lots of commas. Like this:
- Jack, a skilled but wild hockey player, skated to the referee and punched him in the nose.
Or an appositive can go at the end of the sentence. Like this:
- The fans cheered Jack, a skilled but wild hockey player who skated to the referee and punched him in the nose.
Paraphrase with Clauses
What to do: There are two sections. Each question has two sentences. Combine two sentences into one sentence using relative clauses and appositives.
Relative clauses Use these relative pronouns to combine the sentences: who, which and that.
1 Jim lives in Ottawa. Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
2 Viruses are dangerous programs. They usually enter a computer secretly.
3 Laura is a wealthy woman. She rarely worries about the cost of things.
4 Toronto is a cosmopolitan city. It is home for nationalities all across the globe.
5 The angry teacher scolded a student. The student was bleeding.
6 I bought a second-hand car from a local dealer. It turned out to be a lemon.
7 I saw the photograph on the wall. It was taken at Angkor Wat.
1 Jim lives in Ottawa, which is the capital of Canada.
2 Viruses are dangerous programs that usually enter a computer secretly.
3 Laura is a wealthy woman who rarely worries about the cost of things.
4 Toronto is a cosmopolitan city which is home for nationalities all across the globe.
5 The angry teacher scolded a student who was bleeding.
6 I bought a second-hand car from a local dealer that turned out to be a lemon.
7 I saw the photograph on the wall which was taken at Angkor Wat.
Examples for Appositives
1 My aunt lost her favorite ring, a gift from her sister.
2 The Han, South Korea's second longest river, flows through Seoul.
3 The first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, was from Russia.
4 I sat beside Mr. Black, a local prosecutor.
5 Janet's dog, a mutt, sat under a tree and panted.
6 Dr. Jones, a prize-winning baker, loves to bake bread.
7 Mr. James, the CEO of a venture software company, is a good friend of mine.
Sometimes, you have to change the sentence to make the definition work properly. Watch out for prepositions, for instance. Here is an example.
- Parents opposed to after-school programs should not have to pay for these services if their children do not attend those classes.
- Parents against after-school programs should not have to pay for these services if their children do not attend those classes.
In the first sentence, the key words are ‘opposed to.’ In the second sentence, we replaced the key words with ‘against.’ Notice that we don’t need the preposition ‘to’ in the second sentence. That is an example of the details you need to watch out for when paraphrasing with meanings.
What to do: Replace the underlined word its definition.
The judge's verdict surprised everyone in the courtroom. The judge's final decision surprised everyone in the courtroom.
1 Home buyers with cash can exploit the decline in housing prices.
2 Our country's gross domestic product has increased by 3% since last year when measured on a per capita basis.
3 Lifting heavy cartons all day will aggravate your sore back.
4 Police investigators used advanced forensics to identify the culprits.
5 Most economic analysts predict the financial crisis will persist into the new year.
6 Young people in Asian countries are disinterested in performing holiday rites.
7 Some TV commentators have been criticized for a bias against the president's proposals.
8 Strong demand for crude oil combined with corporate greed have created negative consequences for the residents of New Orleans.
9 Political scientists who study regional development indicate the gap between rich and poor countries is growing.
10 The board of education promised reforms though most parents are skeptical about the board members' motives.
1 Home buyers with cash can take advantage of the drop in housing prices.
2 Our country's economic output has increased by 3% since last year when measured on a per person basis.
3 Lifting heavy boxes all day will make your sore back worse.
4 Police investigators used advanced scientific techniques to collect evidence to identify the suspected offenders.
5 Most economic analysts believe the financial crisis will continue into the new year.
6 Young people in Asian countries are disinterested in observing traditional holiday customs and practices.
7 Some TV commentators have been criticized for a prejudiced opinion towards the president's new ideas.
8 High consumption of crude oil combined with corporate greed have created disastrous results for the residents of New Orleans.
9 Political scientists who study regional development suggest the disparity in wealth between rich and poor countries is growing.
10 The board of education promised positive changes though most parents have suspicions about the board members' intentions.
با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.
هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.