Language focus 2: Noun phrases

Read the following explanations and examples. Then complete the gap in each category with a further example from the box. There is an example at the beginning (0).

a Sunday newspaper        a series of tests      the top of the ladder        workforce       firc-enEine        wine bottle         four weeks' work           next kiday's meeting            a candidate's back and legs

There are a number of different ways of combining nouns.

Question No. /

A Noun + noun

Noun + noun is used in a large number of compound nouns to describe a single idea. Some are written as two words:

e.g. fire station (0) fire engine

Some are written as one word:

e.g. firefighter (1)

There are no rules to help you decide whether compound nouns are written as one word or two.

B Noun + of+ noun

Where no compound noun exists noun + of + noun is often used.

e.g. an important part of the job(2)

Noun + of + noun is used with words like top, bottom, back, front beginning, middle, end to describe parts of things.

e.g. the end of the week (3)

C Noun +'s/s'+ noun

When talking about possession by a person, noun + s'/s' + noun is used.

e.g. the firefighter's equipment (4)

D Specialdistinctions

1 Noun + noun can be used for things which happen or appear regularly.

e.g. a Saturday job a day shift (5)

Noun + 's/s' + noun is used ifthey happen or appear once:

e.g. last Saturday's newspaper (6)

or to show duration:

e.g. a day's journey (7)

2 Noun + noun is used for containers:

e.g. matchbox (8)

Noun + of + noun is used to refer to the contents of the containers:

e.g. a box of matches a bottle of wine

2   Complete the sentences using noun phrases formed from the words in brackets.

Question No. /

1 I have a big breakfast at the (day; start) and several (coffee; cups) throughout the morning. I wouldn't be able to worUstudy if I didn't.

2 l've never had a (job; holiday); my (time; leisure) is too important to me.

3 l'd hate to work a (night; shift); l'd only consider it if they gave me an extra (month; holiday) each year to compensate.

4 My school didn't prepare/hasn't prepared me very well for the (work; world). In fact, must lessons were/are a (waste; time).

5 There aren't many (opportunities; job) for school leavers in my area; a (young person; chances) of finding work are not very good.

6I think all schools should organize a programme of (experience; work) for their students; that way, they get a taste of what life is like in the (place;work).

How true for you or your area is each sentence in exercise 2? Develop your answers, giving reasons and/or examples.


Writing 1

Part 1


1  Read the following Writing Part 1 instructions. How would you answer the essay question and what could you say for each of the three 'Things to write about' in the Notes?

In your English class you have been talking about the world of work. Your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

Write an essay using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view.

Write your essay in 140-190 words.

Essay question

it is better to work at home than in an office. Do you agree?


Write about:

1 contact with peaple 

2 working hours 

3----------(your own idea)

2   Read the answer below to the question in exercise 1 and discuss the following questions with your partner. Give examples from the answer.

How well has the writer addressed the three points in the notes?
How varied is the writer's language?
c  How appropriate is the style?
d  Does the writer use appropriate linking devices?

No, I don't agree. I'd,prefer to work in an ofice.
If you work  at home you can't talk to anyone- their's only you and the computer. No one else. it's not very helthy if you can't talk to peaple during the dag. you don't hear other peaple's ideas and oppinions and you get a bit lonley with just the computer to talk to. you might talk to somebody on the phone but it's not the same.

OK, if your at home and you don't have contact with poeple, no one, can talk to you and disturb you, so you do more work. so it's better to work at home if you just want to work all the time. But talking to people makes life more intresting and it's pretty  boring just working all the time. I think so, anyway.

Anyway, ,maybe you don't realy have many working hours at home, because you have Loads of coffee brakes and no one tells you, come on, do some work.
so for all these reasons, my own idea is that it is better to work in an office than at home.

3   There are ten spelling mistakes in the answer above. Find the mistakes and correct them.

4   Write an essay in 140-190 words on one of the following:
a   Write your own answer to the question in 1 above.
b   Write an answer to the following guestion.

In your English class you have been talking about the pressures that exist for young people nowadays. Your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

Write an essay using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view.


Don't forget!

-  Plan your essay. Consider all three points in the Notes.

-  Write in a consistently formal or neutral style.

-   Organize your ideas using paragraphs and linking devices. 

-   Include a suitable introduction and conclusion.

-    Use a range of language and avoid repetition.

-    Check your answer for accuracy.

Reread the information about writing essays on page 39 in Unit 3.

Essay question

life is harder for young people now than in the past. Do you agree?


Write about:

1 education 

2 work

3 --------- (your own idea)

نظرات کاربران

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.