Language focus 1: Obligation, necessity and permission

1 Look at sentences 1-10 from the reading text and answer questions a-d below. Write a, b, c, d in the gap.

  Which underlined verb phrases taglk about what is/was permitted?
  Which verb ohrases talk about what isn'Uwasn't permined.
   Which ones express necessity and/or obligation in the present or past?
d   Which express a lack of necessity and/or obligation in the present or past?

Question No. /

1 ... far tao much emphasis was placed on what we could and couldn't do ...

and

2 We had to wear our jacket and tie at all times ...

3 They didn't let us drink water in the classroom ...

4 ... pupils almost have to drink [water] now.

5 ... situations in which [mobile phones] can and cannotbe used.

and

6 David doesn't have to wear a tie if he doesn't want to...

7 sixteen-year-old daughter isn't allowed to wear a nose stud to school ...

8 ... they made her take [the nose stud] out ...

9 When I was a lad, we weren't allowed to have shoulder-length hair at school

10 As a lawye4 I don't need to be convinced of their importance ...

2    Who might say the following sentences?
a    You must hand in your homework tomorrow.
b    We have to hand in our homework tomorrow
      Why is rnust used in the first sentence and haye to in the second?
  In the following sentences the forms which express obligation, necessity and permission are all used incorrectly.

Correct the mistakes and then check your answers by reading the Grammar reference on page 213.

Question No. /

1

Question No. /

2

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3

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4

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5

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6

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7

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8

Make and let
4 Note that both of these verbs in the active are followed by the infinitive without to.
a Rewrite the following two sentences from the text in the passive.

Question No. /

1 They didn't let us drink water in the classroom.
We weren't Water in the classroom.

2 They made her take the nose stud out.
She was the nose stud out.

b  Complete the following sentences using the correct form of make, let or allow.

Question No. /

1 I wanted to watch the film last night but I wasn't to. I had to go to bed early.
2 l'd love to come but I don't think my boss will me have the day off work.
3 I hate cabbage but my mum me eat it.


5 The advertisement below appeared in an international magazine. Read the advertisement and Tim's email, then complete each gap in the email with a verb from the box.
Use each verb once only.

supposed to / have to / don't have to / mustn't / need / should / ought / better

 Competition     

Why nut entcy our r,xciting new wntirg cow?etaton?
the rules are siynplei jlrst wrate a swr1 in no vnore than 600 tooyds on angthewe goulike, and gou could win an e-book redder
Send us your entry  by ewail no later than 31January. The winning story will appenr in the March edition of EnglishTodag.
' Entrants must be at least 16 years old.    

Don't forget not to use conttractions. do not have to is correct . don't have to is not accepted.

Question No. /

To: Elisa
Sent: 6 January
Subject: Writing competition
Hi Elisa
Do you remember that writing competition I told you about? Well, my teacher suggested I (1) go in for it, so I think I will. I reckon the hardest thing for me will be the fact that you (2) write more than 600 words. Once I start writing I just can't stop, so l'll (3) to control myself if I want to keep within the limit.
The good thing is you (4) write about any specific topic - you can choose that yourself. But I think I (5) to write about something I'm familiar with, don't you? I could base it around a fishing trip or a tennis match. The only problem is you're (6) be at least 16 to enter. My birthday's not until 4 February but it would be a bit mean of them not to accept my entry, wouldn't it?
I (7) send it in by the end of the month, so I'd (8) start writing soon, as I'm going skiing on the 19th.
Wish me luck!
Tim

6   Talk about the things you have to, should or ought to do and those things you don't have to or aren't allowed to do at:
- home
- schoollcollegelwork
- the weekend    

Example:
Home:
I ought to tidy my room more often, but I never seem to find the time. I don't have to clean il though. My mother does that for me. 

Word formation: -en suffix   

... they should tighten the rules up a bit more at my son\ place.
... its no more dangerous than carrying a sharpened pencil in your pocket.

1   a Some verbs are formed by adding the suffix -en to an adjective (tight - tighten) or -n if the adjective ends in e (loose - loosen). Write the verbs formed from these adjectives. You may need to double the final consonant. 

Question No. /

weak sweet

deaf fat

bright wide

worse sad

b   A small number of verbs are formed adjective. Complete the table.

Question No. /

Adjective /1 Noun /2 Verb
strong 12
long 12
high 12



 Complete the gaps with the correct form of one of the words you wrote in exercise 1. The first one has been done for you.

61

Question No. /

1 Are there any types of food which you know are very fattening but which you can't resist?

2 Do you have many things in your house such as paintings, plants or ornaments to it up? How about your bedroom?

3 If you drink tea or coffee, how much sugar do you add to it?

4 Do you like listening to music? Does it bother you if others play loud music?

5 Which of the following problems have ln recent years ln your country and which have improved? Is enough being done to solve them?

football violence crime unemployment pollution

6 If you were asked to describe your main and weakiresses at a job interview, what would you say?

7 If you had to choose, would you the working/school day and go to work/school one day fewer each week, or shorten it and go one day more? Why?

8 Do you have a good head for or do you hate being at the top of tall buildings?

3     Discuss the questions in exercise 2 with your partner.

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ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.