Language focus 2: Expressing purpose

A In order to, so as to and so that

1 The full infinitive or in order to + infinitive can be used to show the purpose of an action.

Professor Cline uses the example of the milk bottle to illustrate a previous way of thinking about the brain.

She studied another language in order to make herself more employable.

In order to can also be used in the negative:

I set two alarm clocks in order not to oversleep.

So as (not) to + infinitive is another possibility.

He left work early so as not to miss his daughter's birthday.

2 So (that) + a clause is yet another way of expressing purpose. Look at the following examples and decide which verb forms are used after so (that) to refer to the future and which verb forms are used to refer to the past.

1 I turned the light on so I could see what I was doing.

2 Put your bag by the door so that you don't forget it when you leave.

3 I'm going to buy a phrase book so I can at least order a coffee in Polish.

4 I wore my raincoat so that I wouldn't get wet.

5 I've put an extra blanket on your bed so that you won't get cold again tonight.

Check your ideas in the Grammar reference on page 221 and read more about expressing purpose.

3 Complete the following sentences in an appropriate way.

1 We've decided to get my grandmother a computer so that ...

2 We're going to get to the concert two hours before the start in order ...

3 I'm taking the First exam so ...

4 I pretended to be ill so ...

5 She moved house in order ...

6 He went up the stairs very quietly so as ...

7 I'm going to do my homework as soon as I get home so ...

Think of three reasons for each of the following. Use clauses of purpose in your answers.

Why do people:

  • go to nightclubs?
  • do dangerous sports?
  • take exams?
  • learn languages?
  • get married?
  • support football teams?

Example:

People go to nightclubs ... so as to meet new people.

in order to have a good time.

so that they can dance.

B In case

1 /'// take my credit card in case I run out of cash.

The first action (taking the credit card) is done to prepare for a possible situation or problem in the future (running out of cash). When in case is followed by the present simple, it has a future meaning.

To refer to past situations we use in case + the past simple.

I wore my raincoat in case it rained.

2 Complete the following sentences in an appropriate way.

1 Take a spare pen into the exam in case ... .

2 We decided not to take the car in case .... .

3 You should insure the contents of your house in case ...

4 I'm taking a sandwich to work in case ...

5 My mum gave me some extra money in case ... .

6 We've left a key with the neighbours in case .... .

Roleplay: Expressing purpose

1 Work in pairs. Decide who is student A and who is B and

follow the relevant instructions.

Student A

You are a rather fussy, over-protective parent whose teenage son/daughter is going away on a one-week camping trip with some friends. It is the first time he/she has been away on holiday without you, and you are going to give advice on what items he/she should take. Write down eight things which you consider to be essential for the trip, together with your reasons. Use the expressions above (so that, in case, etc). Use the prompts in the box below to help you.

Student B

You are a teenager who is about to go on a one-week camping trip with a group of friends. Your parents always worry too much and one of them is going to give you lots of advice about what to take. You just want to have a good time, so you're not interested in boring details. Write down at least eight items you want to take on the trip, together with your reasons. Use the expressions above (so that, in case, etc). Use the prompts in the box below to help you.

food             drink           cooking equipment    entertainment

medicines clothing          emergency provisions

When you have each prepared your list. take it in turns to talk about each of the items, giving your reasons. Try to agree on at least five items which will be taken on the trip.

Who was the most persuasive?

Writing 1

Part 2

Article

Your college magazine has asked you to write an article, giving advice to next year's First students about how to prepare for the examination throughout the course.

Write your article for the magazine, based on your own experience. Write your answer in 140-190 words in an appropriate style

How to go about it

When planning your article, consider the following:

organizing and learning new vocabulary studying grammar

improving reading, listening, writing and speaking skills

where and when to do homework

organizing your time

watching films, reading books, etc

Clauses of purpose might be useful when giving the reasons for your advice.

Examples:

I've read several short stories this year in order to prepare for the Reading Paper.

I bought a separate notebook so that I could organize new vocabulary.

Don't forget to make reference to your own experience.

speaking

Part 2

Talking about photos

What to expect in the exam

In Part 2 of the Speaking test, Student A speaks for one minute and Student B has 30 seconds.

When you do the following Speaking Part 2 tasks, practise keeping to these time limits.

Look at the photographs below, which show people learning a foreign language.

Student A Compare the photographs and say how difficult you think it is for the people to learn the foreign language.

Student B When your partner has finished, say whether there are any foreign languages, apart from English, that you would like to learn.

How difficult is it for the people to learn the foreign language?

185

Now change roles and do the Part 2 task on page 205.

نظرات کاربران

ماژیک فسفری

با استفاده از ماژیک فسفری می توانید کلمات و بخش های مهم را برای خود علامت گذاری نمایید و هنگام پاسخ به آزمون از آنها استفاده کنید. برای از بین بردن بخش های رنگی دوباره روی آن کلیک نمایید.

دفترچه یادداشت

هر تعدادی که دوست دارید دفترچه یادداشت ایجاد کنید و نکات مهم را در آن بنویسید.
برای استفاده از دفترچه یادداشت بر روی قسمتی از درس یا آزمون که می خواهید در آنجا نکته ی مهمی را قرار دهید کلیک نمایید.سپس در آن قسمت یک دفترچه یادداشت جدید ایجاد میشود و با کلیک بر روی آن می توانید بازش کنید و نکته های مهم را بنویسید.